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The first institution in Ontario opened in Orillia on September 25, 1876. Not until the emergence of Community Living in the 1950s were there alternatives to this flawed model of support for people who have an intellectual disability. In his 1971 report, Walter Williston stated that "a century of failure and inhumanity in the large multi-purpose residential hospitals should, in itself, be enough to warn of the inherent weakness in the system and inspire us to look for some better solution."
Following are some of the milestones over
the past 5 decades as we have worked to find those "better solutions" and bring
to a close our long history of institutionalization.
The Association successfully advocates for changes to plans for a proposed institution at Cedar Springs (Southwest Regional Centre), reducing it from 2,400 to 1,000 beds.
Community Living members Betty and Jerry Anglin arrange a tour
by Pierre Berton of the Ontario Hospital School in Orillia. His resulting column
on the deplorable conditions in ancient overcrowded buildings creates a furor
when it appears in the Toronto Star. The Minister of Health, while not
admitting to Berton's charges, proceeds to commission a film entitled "One on
Every Street", showing sinking floors, cracked plaster, crowded wards and
dripping pipes in the 70 year old dormitories designed for 40 beds and accommodating 100 or more.
A report by Walter B. Williston Q.C. looks into the death and severe frostbite of two men from Rideau Regional Centre and recommends the phasing down of large institutions.
A report by Robert Welch, Secretary for Social Development, calls for the creation of appropriate residential homes in the community to facilitate deinstitutionalization.
The Developmental Services Act is passed, providing the legislative framework for the creation and operation of community services for people who have an intellectual disability
The Government paper referred to as the Avocado Paper describes, for the first time, specific targets for institutional downsizing.
The Association protests plans to build a 150-bed institution in Etobicoke. Plans are altered to create community supports for 100 individuals. The government announces the first multi-year plan to close one institution and downsize another
Nipissing Regional Centre (Timmins) - CLOSED
A second multi-year plan targets the closure of five institutions.
The Association releases the document Deinstitutionalization, a Value Based Process for Planning and Implementing the Repatriation of People With Handicapping Conditions.
St. Lawrence Regional Centre (Brockville) - CLOSED
Bluewater Centre (Goderich) - CLOSED
START Centre (St. Thomas) - CLOSED
Pine Ridge Centre (Aurora) - CLOSED
Durham Centre (Whitby) - CLOSED
Community and Social Services Minister John Sweeney announces Challenges and Opportunities, describing a strategy for developing a comprehensive system of supports and services in the province and making a commitment to close all large institutions within 25 years. He also announces the third multi-year plan with a target of closing three more institutions.
Surrey Place Centre (Toronto -residential) - CLOSED
The Association forms a partnership with the Canadian Association to undertake the "Opening New Doors" project to prepare communities to welcome people that are coming home from institutions
Muskoka Centre (Gravenhurst) -CLOSED
Northwestern Regional Centre (Thunder Bay) - CLOSED
D'Arcy Place (Cobourg) - CLOSED
Oxford Regional Centre (Woodstock) - CLOSED
The Association presents to government the document "No Better Time Than Now - Saying Farewell to Institutions." The document stresses the need to close institutions and the value of supporting people to live in the community.
Community and Social Services Minister David Tsubouchi announces the 4th multi-year plan with a target to move almost 1,000 people from institutions and closing 5 more facilities.
Midwestern Regional Centre (Palmerston) - CLOSED
Prince Edward Heights (Picton) - CLOSED
Adult Occupational Centre (Edgar) - CLOSED
Concerned that momentum to close institutions might be slowing, Community Living associations in southwestern Ontario spearhead an initiative to renew the issue as a provincial priority. A new provincial working group is struck to demand government action on the final closure of the institutions.
The Association members protest plans by government to build a youth detention centre on the grounds of the Southwest Regional Centre while that institution is still in operation.
The Association hosts a provincial forum "Free the People" to develop strategies for getting the government to act on the closure of the final three institutions in Ontario. Similar regional events are hosted regionally in Smith Falls and Windsor to demand action and plan for the return of people to the community.
Community and Social Services Minister Sandra Pupatello announces that the remaining three institutions will close by April, 2009.
Some families of people in the facilities slated to close bring court action against the government challenging the planned closures. Community Living Ontario seeks intervener status in the court proceedings. Consistent with the positions taken by Community Living, the court rules in January, 2006 that closures can proceed and that families and individuals must have access to appropriate planning that decides where they will live.
Ontario is continuing with the process of closing its final 3 large institutions for people who have an intellectual disability. The decision to close all institutions in Ontario was made by the government in 1987.
The closure process has been done in stages through a series of multi-year initiatives to downsize or close each institution. Between the late 1980's and 2000, more than 6000 people were supported to return to the community and 14 of 17 institutions have successfully closed. Following a 4-year delay in further closure, the government announced the last stage of the closures in September 2004. At that time there were 3 large institutions left in the province with approximately 1000 residents. As of June 30, 2007 479 people remained in the 3 facilities. As of July 30, 2007 460 people remained. We are now a little over half-way through moving people out of the facilities and planning processes are completed or are underway for the remaining people.
During this past summer, the sector that provides community supports to people who have an intellectual disabilities in Ontario was rocked by a series of strikes stemming from workers long-standing concern about wages paid in the sector. More than 80 collective agreements came due this year in our developmental services sector and seven strikes occurred during the summer. The government has responded with an influx of new resources to the sector to enhance wages. The seven strikes have now been settled and the labour unrest in the province has reduced considerably. There were concerns leading into this period, that the labour unrest would interfere with the ability of local Associations to plan for and welcome people home from the institutions and would therefore slow the closure process. There were in fact a few delays as some of the Associations embroiled in labour disruptions concluded that it would not be in the interest of the people returning to the community to be welcomed into a residence that might become the target of labour action. Fortunately, these delays were not widespread and we are now back on track.
Ontario is currently in a provincial election. Over the past year Community Living Ontario has expressed some concerns about the commitment of the official opposition to the closure process based on comments reported to have been made by the leader of the opposition. The Association has since met with the leader and has received assurances of his commitment to closure as long has he can be confident that everyone leaving the facilities can have their needs met in the community. We are now confident that the closure will not be disrupted by the outcome of the election on October 11.
All three institutions are scheduled to be closed by April 1, 2009 and it appears that we remain on target to achieve that goal. In fact, the institution in the southwest region of the province is well along in its process and we anticipate that facility might close before the end of 2008.
At present in Ontario, there are three large institutions left with just over 1,000 people living in them. The government committed some years ago to close the facilities with a target date of 2012. Progress went well for a number of years, but stalled in 2000 – since then no one has left and a few people have been readmitted in recent months.